Monetary history Chapter 1 Introduction The one of the most astonishing event in the world monetary history is the introduction of the single currency in the Europe. This whole process took almost half of the 20th century to reach this goal and finally glimpses the EURO circle in European countries. However, there are still some European countries left for example UK, Denmark and Sweden that are potential members of the European Union but not the member of the single currency. Therefore, it becomes obligatory for them to estimate properly all the costs and benefits of this decision.
The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. A temple to Kukulkan sits atop this pyramid with a total of stairs on its four sides. At the spring and fall equinoxesthe sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase. The large and complex civilizations of Mexico developed in the center and southern regions with the southern region extending into what is now Central America in what has come to be known as Mesoamerica.
The civilizations that rose and declined over millennia were characterized by: These civilizations arose in a region with no major navigable rivers, no beasts of burden, and difficult terrain that impeded the movement of people and goods. Indigenous civilizations developed complex ritual and solar calendars, a significant understanding of astronomy and developed forms of written communication in the form of glyphs.
The history of Mexico prior to the Spanish conquest is known through the work of archaeologistsepigraphersand ethnohistorians scholars who study Indigenous history, usually from the Indigenous point of viewwho analyze Mesoamerican Indigenous manuscripts, particularly Aztec codicesMayan codicesand Mixtec codices.
Accounts written by the Spanish at the time of their conquest the conquistadores and by Indigenous chroniclers of the post-conquest period constitute the principal source of information regarding Mexico at the time of the Spanish Conquest.
While relatively few pictorial manuscripts or codices of the Mixtec and Aztec cultures of the Post-Classic period survive, progress has been made in the area of Maya archaeology and epigraphy. In particular, the Valley of Mexico contained several large paleo-lakes known collectively as Lake Texcoco surrounded by dense forest.
Deer were found in this central area, but most fauna were small land animals and fish and other lacustrine animals were found in the lake region. Corn, squash, and beans[ edit ] Variegated maize ears Indigenous peoples in western Mexico began to selectively breed maize Zea mays plants from precursor grasses e.
The Three Sisters corn, squash, and beans constituted the principal diet. The Mesoamericans had a belief where everything, every element of the cosmos, the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars, which mankind inhabits, everything that forms part of nature such as animals, plants, water and mountains all represented a manifestation of the supernatural.
In most cases gods and goddesses are often depicted in stone reliefs, pottery decoration, wall paintings and in the various Mayaand pictorial manuscripts such as Maya codicesAztec codicesand Mixtec codices.
British MuseumLondon. The Maya built vast complexes of temples, palaces, and plazas and decorated many with painted reliefs. The spiritual pantheon was vast and extremely complex. However, many of the deities depicted are common to the various civilizations and their worship survived over long periods of time.
They frequently took on different characteristics and even names in different areas, but in effect they transcended cultures and time. Great masks with gaping jaws and monstrous features in stone or stucco were often located at the entrance to temples, symbolizing a cavern or cave on the flanks of the mountains that allowed access to the depths of Mother Earth and the shadowy roads that lead to the underworld.
Jadewith its translucent green color was revered along with water as a symbol of life and fertility. The jaguar, agile, powerful and fast, was especially connected with warriors and as spirit guides of shamans.
Despite differences of chronology or geography, the crucial aspects of this religious pantheon were shared amongst the people of ancient Mesoamerica.
New gods did not at once replace the old; they initially joined the ever-growing family of deities or were merged with existing ones that seemed to share similar characteristics or responsibilities.
A great deal is known about Aztec religion due to the work of the early mendicant friars in their work to convert the Indigenous peoples to Christianity. Writing[ edit ] Mesoamerica is the only place in the Americas where Indigenous writing systems were invented and used before European colonization.
While the types of writing systems in Mesoamerica range from minimalist "picture-writing" to complex logophonetic systems capable of recording speech and literature, they all share some core features that make them visually and functionally distinct from other writing systems of the world.
The fact that there was an existing prehispanic tradition of writing meant that when the Spanish friars taught Mexican Indians to write their own languages, particularly Nahuatlan alphabetic tradition took hold. It was used in official documents for legal cases and other legal instruments.
The formal use of native language documentation lasted until Mexican independence in Beginning in the late twentieth century, scholars have mined these native language documents for information about colonial-era economics, culture, and language.
The New Philology is the current name for this particular branch of colonial-era Mesoamerican ethnohistory. Major civilizations[ edit ] The identities of the Olmec colossal are uncertain, but their individualized features and distinctive headgear, as well as later Maya practice, suggest that these heads portray rulers rather than deities.
During the pre-Columbian period, many city-states, kingdoms, and empires competed with one another for power and prestige. Ancient Mexico can be said to have produced five major civilizations:© Cambridge University Press metin2sell.com Cambridge University Press - The Gold Standard and Related Regimes .
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De ation My rst essay studies a mostly forgotten aspect of the. The Gold Standard Essay The Gold Standard At the onset of international commerce and trade, gold was the purchasing power that was most valued and common to all nations.
Nations that traded in gold could rely on the precious metal's longevity, unlike manufactured currency, which held a much shorter shelf life.