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Pinning down the biological basis for this risk is an important avenue of Individual behaviour for scientists trying to solve the problem of drug addiction. Research on the human genome has shown that, on average, the DNA sequences of any two people are These differences contribute to visible variations, like height and hair color, and invisible traits, such as increased risk for or protection from certain diseases such as heart attack, stroke, diabetes, and addiction.
Some diseases, such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis, are caused by an error, known as a mutation, in a single gene. Medical researchers have had striking success at unraveling the genetics of these single-gene disorders, though finding treatments or cures has not been as simple.
The good news is that scientists are actively pursuing many more paths to treatment and prevention of these more complex illnesses.
Linking Genes to Health: Technologies such as genome-wide association studies GWASwhole genome sequencing, and exome sequencing looking at just the protein-coding genes identify subtle variations in DNA sequence called single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs.
SNPs are differences in just a single letter of the genetic code from one person to another. If a SNP appears more often in people with a disease than those without, it is thought to either directly affect susceptibility to that disease or be a marker for another variation that Individual behaviour.
GWAS and sequencing are extremely powerful tools because they can find a connection between a known gene or genes and a disorder, and can identify genes that may have been overlooked or were previously unknown.
Through these methods, scientists can gather more evidence from affected families or use animal models and biochemical experiments to verify and understand the link between a gene and the risk of addiction.
These findings would then be the basis for developing new treatment and intervention approaches. For example, both genetics and lifestyle factors—such as diet, physical activity, and stress—affect high blood pressure risk.
However, different software systems and measurement formats have made sharing data sets difficult. NIH has created "Big Data" policies that will enable better sharing of information https: When the data can be combined and harmonized, a process called data integration, the chances of identifying new genetic information that could give rise to new disease insights is amplified.
For example, a community that provides healthy after-school activities has been shown to reduce vulnerability to drug addiction, and recent data show that access to exercise can discourage drug-seeking behavior, an effect that is more pronounced in males than in females.
Research also suggests that genes can play a part in how a person responds to his or her environment, placing some people at higher risk for disease than others.
Over time, as they are exposed to differences in their environments and make choices of their own, their DNA gets marked with information that can affect their behavior, their risk of addiction, and even their response to treatment.
Some of these changes can be passed on to later generations. This is called epigenetics. Epigenetics is the study of functional, and sometimes inherited, changes in the regulation of gene activity and expression that are not dependent on gene sequence.
So, although each cell type in the human body effectively contains the same genetic information, epigenetic regulatory systems enable the development of different cell types e. These epigenetic marks can affect health and even the expression of the traits passed to children. For example, when a person uses cocaine, it can mark the DNA, increasing the production of proteins common in addiction.
Increased levels of these altered proteins correspond with drug-seeking behaviors in animals. Histones, as another example, are like protein spools that provide an organizational structure for genes. Genes coil around histones, tightening or loosening to control gene expression.
Drug exposure can affect specific histones, modifying gene expression in localized brain regions. Current research suggests that smokers with high-risk genotypes are more likely to receive greater benefits from certain medications. Also, the rate of nicotine metabolism can help inform treatment decisions.
Studying and using these data types to identify biological factors involved in substance abuse is increasingly important because technologic advances have improved the ability of researchers to single out individual genes or brain processes that may inform new prevention and treatment interventions.
Genetics and Precision Medicine Clinicians often find substantial variability in how individual patients respond to treatment. Part of that variability is due to genetics.
Learning more about the genetic, epigenetic, and neurobiological bases of addiction will eventually advance the science of addiction."Recording The World Since " History About Us Testimonials News Service Contact; GOVERNMENT DIVISION ⇒ (Password Protected) NATURE DIVISION ⇒ (Public) Corporate Mission Since our inception in , Saul Mineroff Electronics, Inc.
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This superb introduction to the field of organizational psychology and organizational behaviour builds on the foundation of the highly successful first edition to provide up-to-date explanations of all the key topics in a clear, coherent and accessible style.
The how-to guide for the evaluation of behaviour change programs. The toolbox provide a one-stop website for the evaluation of community sustainability engagement projects that aim to change household behaviours.
The toolbox brings together a number of best-practice evaluation methods packaged into a comprehensive, user-friendly, how-to format. Nov 10, · Individual behavior refers to how individual behaves at work place, his behavior is influenced by his attitude,personality,perception, learning .
Before I went on the trip, I wanted to know what it would cost me, in order to see if I could afford it. The principle of operant selection is examined as a prototype of cultural selection, and the role of the social environment is suggested as the critical element in the emergence of cultural phenomena.
Operant contingencies are compared to cultural selection contingencies, designated as.