Origin of the Hebrew Alphabet: Hebrew as the first and oldest alphabet on earth: There is no evidence of any script during the patriarchal age.
Located in what's now Pakistan and western India, it was the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. It was the largest of the four ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China.
However, of all these civilizations the least is known about the Indus Valley people. This is because the Indus script has not yet been deciphered. There are many remnants of the script on pottery vessels, seals, and amulets, but without a "Rosetta Stone" linguists and archaeologists have been unable to decipher it.
They have then had to rely upon the surviving cultural materials to give them insight into the life of the Harappan's.
This article will be focusing mainly on the two largest cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, and what has been discovered there. The discovery of the Indus Valley civilization was first recorded in the 's by the British. The first recorded note was by a British army deserter, James Lewis, who was posing as an American engineer in He noticed the presence of mounded ruins at a small town in Punjab called Harappa.
Because Harappa was the first city found, sometimes any of the sites are called the Harappan civilization. Alexander Cunningham, who headed the Archaeological Survey of India, visited this site in and while looking for the cities that had been visited by Chinese pilgrims in the Buddhist period.
The presence of an ancient city was confirmed in the following 50 years, but no one had any idea of its age or importance. By heavy brick robbing had virtually destroyed the upper layers of the site. The stolen bricks were used to build houses and particularly to build a railway bed that the British were constructing.
Alexander Cunningham made a few small excavations at the site and reported some discoveries of ancient pottery, some stone tools, and a stone seal. Cunningham published his finds and it generated some increased interest by scholars. It wasn't till that excavations began in earnest at Harappa.
John Marshall, then the director of the Archaeological Survey of India, started a new excavation at Harappa. Along with finds from another archaeologist, who was excavating at Mohenjo Daro, Marshall believed that what they had found gave evidence of a new civilization that was older than any they had known.
This multidisciplinary study effort consists of archaeologists, linguists, historians, and physical anthropologists. Kenoyer was born in Shillong, India, and spent most of his youth there. He went on to receive his advanced degrees from the University of California at Berkeley.
He is now a professor of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and teaches archaeology and ancient technologies.
Kenoyer's main focus has been on the Indus Valley civilization's where he has conducted research for the last 23 years. Ever since he was a young graduate student, Kenoyer was particularly interested in ancient technology.
He has done a great deal of work in trying to replicate processes used by ancient people in the production of jewelry and pottery. One of his first efforts in replicating shell bangle making was then co-authored with George Dales and published in an article.
His doctorate studies were based upon this research, and his dissertation is a milestone in the field of experimental archaeology and ethnoarchaeology, besides being the definitive study of Harappan shell working.
Kenoyer preface Kenoyer uses a contextual archaeological approach. His work is characterized by the use of cold evidence to draw the outlines of this ancient civilization. AlthoughHarappa was undoubtedly occupied previously, it was between B.
Radio carbon dating, along with the comparison of artifacts and pottery has determined this date for the establishment of Harappa and other Indus cities.
This began what is called the golden age of Harappa. During this time a great increase in craft technology, trade, and urban expansion was experienced. For the first time in the history of the region, there was evidence for many people of different classes and occupations living together.
It expanded into a substantial sized town, covering the area of several large shopping malls. Harappa, along with the other Indus Valley cities, had a level of architectural planning that was unparralled in the ancient world. To facilitate the access to other neighborhoods and to segregate private and public areas, the city and streets were particularly organized.
The city had many drinking water wells, and a highly sophisticated system of waste removal. All Harappan houses were equipped with latrines, bathing houses, and sewage drains which emptied into larger mains and eventually deposited the fertile sludge on surrounding agricultural fields.
It has been surprising to archaeologists that the site layouts and artifact styles throughout the Indus region are very similar. It has been concluded these indicate that there was uniform economic and social structure within these cities.
It would seem that a standard brick size was developed and used throughout the Indus cities. Besides similar brick size standard weights are seen to have been used throughout the region as well.Seals from the Indus Valley.
copper and jewellery may be referring to the Indus Valley. It is clear that the Indus civilisation was part of an extensive long-distance trading network. Writing in the Indus Valley A British Museum website with sections on Indus Valley and on writing.
After the introduction click on the topic or use the. Ch. to find Indus Valley in the atlas and to id environmental & physical features e.g., deserts, mountains, rivers, oceans. WALA how the IVC was discovered Ch.
to locate Harappa & M-D on the map of IVC. Ch.
to measure the distances betw. The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity.
Evidence of religious practices in this area date back approximately to BCE. The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilisation during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan periods between and BCE.
Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a language, or even symbolise a writing system.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, archaeologists discovered traces of India's earliest civilization, one that developed in the fertile Indus River Valley between and BCE.
DECLINE OF THE INDUS SCRIPT. By BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of its decline. As part of this process, writing started to disappear. As the Indus Valley Civilization was dying, so did the script they invented.