Geography[ edit ] Inthe territory of France was different from today's France in two important ways:
Next Feeding creative explosions. For many centuries, poetry movements and communities have served as the most provocative, creative, vital, engaging, and oft-underground elements of regional and national literary trends.
The simple joy of gathering for a single or group reading, listening to verse, hearing background stories, and discussing poesy has joined and empowered poets from ancient Athens to the streets of San Francisco.
The assemblies launched social and political discourse while feeding creative explosions that, in nearly all cases, involved the arts and music as well.
Poetic communities launched social and political discourse, and are vital to working poets.
In doing so, we invariably set foot inside a poetic movement or community. Throughout history, there have been hundreds of major and minor poetic movements and communities.
Major community-based movements — such as the Ancient Greek poetry schools, Provencal literature, Sicilian court poets, Elizabethan and Romantic poets, American Transcendentalists, Paris expatriate Surrealistand Beat poets — changed the course of poetry during and after their respective eras.
McKay was part of a literary community with widespread influence. Confessionalists, such as Sylvia Plath, were a part of a tributary movement that contributed to the body of poetics.
While not as well known, tributary movements have been equally rife with provocative thought and contributions to the body of poetics. For example, in the past 50 years in the U. All responded or reacted to the three major movements of the first half of the 20th century: Imagism Ezra Pound, h. This pattern has permeated the wide-rooted, long-branched family tree of community-based poetry.
Insight into ten great movements. By taking a closer look at ten great community-based movements in Western poetry, we can glean greater insight into their genesis, their contributions to world poetry and literature, and their cultural influences.
Ancient Greek poetry 7th to 4th centuries B. The pinnacle of ancient Greek poetry lasted three centuries, making it one of the few multi-generational poetic movements and communities. Ancient Greek poets were also unique because they were the first large group to commit their poetry to writing; prior civilizations preferred the oral tradition, though some written poems date back to the 25th century B.
The pinnacle of ancient Greek poetry lasted three centuries. Poets were often dramatists who wrote for choirs, or courtly muses who entertained regional kings.
Hundreds of dramas were performed, each of them featuring exquisite lyric poetry within its three-act structure. The Greeks developed nearly all of the classic forms that formed the underpinnings of later literature, drama, music and poetry, including the ode, epic, lyric, tragedy, and comedy.
Among the great poets who passed developing forms to succeeding generations were Homer, Hesiod, Sappho, Pindar, Aeschylus, Anacreon, and Euripides. The Romans borrowed from Greek works to develop their own dramatic, literary, and poetic movements.
As Greek works became disseminated through the Western world, they created the basis for modern literature. The Inquisition doomed the Provencal movement in the 13th century, and most troubadours fled to Spain and Italy. However, as the 11th century reached its midpoint, a group of troubadour musicians in southern France began to sing and write striking lyrics.
They were influenced by the Arabic civilization and its leading denizens, Omar Khayyam and Rumi, inspired by Latin and Greek poets, and guided by Christian precepts. Three concepts stood above all others: With a gift for rhythm, meter, and form, the musicians and poets created a masterful style by the 13th century.
During their heyday, these and other poets routinely traveled to communities to deliver poems, news, songs, and dramatic sketches in their masterful lyrical styles. Forms like the sestina, rondeau, triolet, canso, and ballata originated with the Provencal poets.
The Inquisition doomed the Provencal movement in the 13th century, though a few poets continued to produce into the midth century. Frederick II required poets to write about courtly love, and hundreds of beautiful canzone were written between and In the twelfth century, Sicily integrated three distinct languages and cultural influences: Arabic, Byzantine Greek, and Latin.
The small society was well read in both ancient Greek and Latin, and women were viewed more kindly and tenderly than in other medieval cultures.France in the long nineteenth century.
Jump to navigation Jump to search. Part of a series on the. History of France did not experience a strong population growth from the middle of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century. Guesde's POF united itself in with the Parti socialiste de France.
The Lais of Marie de France Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Lais of Marie de France is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. The Royal world she knew and left behind while still little more than a child was an entirely different proposition, and did nothing to prepare her for the realities of her married life.
he would desert Helene and Romania for yet another and far more damaging love. Marie evolved into the next stage in her life, as mother-in-law and. Winston Churchill is a giant among political leaders. He was a soldier, a politician and a riveting orator.
As the prime minister of Britain during the dark days of World War II, helped the British people keep the faith and stay the course against the Nazis through the horrors of Dunkirk, the Blitz, and D-Day. Naturalism (England, America, France, Prussia, Norway) First half of 20th Century Themes/Authors Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, Ernest Hemingway, Jack London, John Steinbeck, William Faulkner Existentialism Post WWII.
In October , Metropolitan Evlogy send a priest to rue de Lourmel: Father Dimitri Klépinin, then 35 years old. A man of few words and great modesty, Fr. Dimitri proved to be a real partner for Mother Maria. The last phase of Mother Maria’s life was a series of responses to World War II and Germany’s occupation of France.